Asia and Kimberley

-Plaque Induced Gingival Lesions of Bacterial Origin

N. gonorrhoeae
  1. Most commonly affects the pahrynx, it presents as an asymptomatic infection with diffuse inflammation or a mild sore throat. Oral gonorrhea is hard to diagnose on clinical signs alone, it can manifest with acute ulceration, diffuse erythema, necrosis of interdental papilla, lingual edema, tissue that are edmatous and bleed easily, vesiculations, and a membrane that is removable and results in bleeding upon removal.

  2. This type of gingivitis is not apparent radiographically.

  3. Neisseria gonorrhea, gram negative

  4. Differential- gingivostomatitis, erosive lichen planus. The difinitive diagnosis would require a bacterial culture.


T. pallidium:

1. Most commonly affects the oral facial tissue and contributes to attachment loss during the tertiary stage. Can appear as red painful ulcers on the lip or oral mucosa during second stage.

2. Radiograps with the presence of T.pallidium would most likely show bone loss since T.Pallidium is associated with periodontal disease
3. Treponema pallidium, gram negative mobile bacteria; member of the spirochete family.
4. Differential: can be found in both aggressive and chronic periodontal disease. The definitive diagnosis would require a bacterial culture.


Streptococcus species
1. May present with fever, malaise, and pain along with acutely inflammation of the gingiva. The gingiva would also appear diffusely erythematous and edematous with increased bleeding and possibly even the development of a gingival abscess.
2. This would not be apparent radiographically.
3.Streptococcus species gram positive non motile cocci.
4. Differential- gingivostomatitis, gonorrhea. The difinitive would be determined with a bacterial culture.



1. NUG presents wiuth painful, erythematous gingiva, necrosis of interdental papillae accompanied by a foul odor and metallic taste. Sloughing of the tissue creates a pseudomembrane.
2. Not visible radiographically.
3. Borrelia vincentii
4. Differential- gingivitis, gingivostomatitis. Difinitive can be deduced from the presentation of distinct clinical symptoms.