Microogranisms Associated with Periodontal Disease

Gram+/-Shape, Aerobic/Anaerobic
Classification of periodontal disease associated with microrganism
Specific Pathogenic Characteristic
Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans/ Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans
A.a., gram negative, rod, facultative anaerobe, nonmotile
Aggressive periodontitis, may also be seen in chronic
Releases collagenase to destroy CT, proteases that destroy immunoglobulins, and produces leukotoxin to make holes in neutrophils, monocytes, and some lymphocytes
Porphyromonas gingivalis
Gram negative, rod, anaerobic, nonmotile
Chronic periodontitis
Has proteases that degrade the immunoglobulin molecule and complement proteins, negating their protective effects, also releases a factor that interferes with PMN chemotaxis to inflammation site.Its fimbriae mediate adhesion, and it has a capsule to defend against phagocytosis.
Tannerella forsythensis (Bacteroides forsythus)
Gram negative, rod, anaerobic, nonmotile
Chronic periodontitis, aggressive periodontitis
Produces enzymes that can destroy immuneglobulins and factors of the complement system. Also induces apoptotic cell death.
Campylobacter rectus
Gram negative, rod, facultative anaerobe, motile
gingivitis, chronic periodontitis, localized aggressive periodontitis, refractory
Produces a leukotoxin
Eikenella corrodens
Gram negative, rod, facultative, nonmotile
Aggressive periodontitis, chronic periodontitis
indolent in nature, associated with oral contamination, difficult to isolate.
Eubacterium nodatum
Gram positive, rod, anaerobic
chronic periodontitis
similar to A.a
Fusobacterium Nucleutum
Gram negative, rod, anaerobic, nonmotile
chronic periodontitis, aggressive periodontitis, gingivitis
Induces apototic cell death in mononuclear and polymorphonuclear cells, as well as trigger the release of cytokines, elastase, and oxygen radicals from leukocytes. Can also bridge colonization of different bacterias.
Prevotella intermedia
Gram negative, rod, anaerobic, nonmotile
gingivitis, chronic periodontitis, necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis/periodontitis, pregnancy/puberty gingivitis
Less virulent and less proteolytic than P. gingivalis
Peptostreptococcus micros
Gram positive, cocci, anaerobic
chronic periodontitis, refractory
Has a capsule which increases its virulence, enhances the effects of Prevotella by means of a synergistic relationship, causes macrophages to produce cytokines
Capnocytophaga species
Gram negative, rod, facultative, nonmotile
gingivitis, localized aggressive and chronic periodontitis
produce toxins that affect fibroblasts and their synthesis/turnover of collagen
Treponema denticola
gram-negative, motile, spirochete, anaerobic
chronic periodontitis, ANUP
Produces proteolytic enzymes that destroy immunoglobulins or complement factors. Spirochetes can can travel through crevicular fluid, penetrate epithelium and connective tissue. Some can also degrade collagen and dentin.
Streptococcus intermedia-complex
gram-positive, cocci, facultative anaerobe
chronic peridontitis, gingivitis
produces hyaluronidase, which is an enzyme that breaks down hyaluronan, a major component of the extracellular matrix of connective tissue, has fimbriae that help it attach to the pellicle
Actinomyces species
gram positive, facultative anaerobic, rod
typically present in health as well as disease, present in early gingivitis, chronic perio
It posses a number of virulence factors including leukotoxins ,collagenase, and a protease.
Fusobacterium species
gram- cigar-shaped bacillus, obligate anaerobe
gingivitis, NUG/NUP, chronic and aggressive periodontitis
Can induce apoptotic cell death in mononuclear and PMNs cells and trigger the release of cytokines elastase an oxygen radicals from leukocytes.